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The Republic of India is located in Southern Asia and is bordered by the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. As the second most populous country in the world, it has a population of over one billion people. Geographically it is slightly more than one-third the size of the United States, which makes it the seventh largest country in the world.
The country officially gained its independence on August 15, 1947, until which time it was part of the British Empire. It is made up of 28 states and 7 union territories, and the capital city is New Delhi.
The climate in India varies very much. Many places get very hot, and the weather is tropical to the south. However even in New Delhi in the north, where the elevation is around 700 or 800 feet, temperatures regularly reach highs above 110F (44C), with nighttime lows still in the high 80s and low 90s. In the Himalayas of India however, it is much more temperate, with many of the mountains having year round snow. Many also believe that places like India are falling victim to global warming, with rising temperatures and increased rates of snow melt in the Himalayas.
India is one of the world's fastest growing economies, and along with their population growth, the country is also becoming more important on a global scale. However, due to this growth, there is also a growing gap between the poor and those with money, and also a disproportion amount of resources between those groups. With the massive economic growth, there is a price being paid by the environment, particularly the mountains and rivers, with dams being built and much of the water being redirected for cash crop farming, which affects the water supplies of local communities, and in some cases, displaces them. In addition to these problems, the industrial growth is also causing serious pollution problems.